Black Holes’ are one of the most elusive universal monsters of the great Galactic skies. Recently scientists are popularising the idea of what Black Holes may be and what we knew is completely wrong. Physicist Mitra from India and Dr. Daniele Pranzetti joins the new Black Hole War making their new claims. >> Find out more

This will bring change to a lot of other theories that were spinning around to claim what a Black hole is. In so many way we will perhaps never know. The movie interstellar may have showed some nice graphical CGI animation – but have shown too many wrong things that will fool any growing brain giving a total wrong idea of what a Black Hole might be.

I have published other articles by Professor Laura Mersini-Houghton teaching at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, claims she has mathematical proof that black holes “can never come into being in the first place,” according to a statement from the university. Black holes, scientists have long believed, are the “ultimate unknown,” because they are “the blackest and most dense objects in the universe.” Mersini-Houghton, though, wants to disprove common ideas about the elusive black holes.

Mersini-Houghton looked at two leading theories of the universe, Einstein’s theory of gravity and a fundamental law of quantum theory. The theories appear to contradict each other — the quantum theory law says that “no information from the universe can ever disappear,” while Einstein’s theory “predicts the formation of black holes.” But Mersini-Houghton has merged what was known as the “information law paradox,” and her findings will make scientists “reimagine the fabric of space-time” and “rethink the origins of the universe,” according to the university.

“I’m still not over the shock,” Mersini-Houghton said in the statement. “We’ve been studying this problem for more than 50 years, and this solution gives us a lot to think about.”

Previous thought suggests that black holes form when stars collapse, and their gravitational pull creates the black hole. Stephen Hawking proved that black holes release radiation, and Mersini-Houghton has built on Hawking’s ideas. She argues that when stars release radiation, they also lose mass — so much mass, in fact, that the star wouldn’t have enough density to ever become a black hole.

“Physicists have been trying to merge these two theories — Einstein’s theory of gravity and quantum mechanics — for decades, but this scenario brings these two theories together, into harmony,” Mersini-Houghton said in the statement. “And that’s a big deal.”

Leonard Susskind – my favourite Theoretical Physicist debunked Stephen Hawking’s Grand design as Hawking proved and claimed with his theory that anything (matter or light) going inside a black hole is completely lost    –

Hawking proposed that information is lost in black holes, and not preserved in Hawking radiation. Susskind disagreed, arguing that Hawking’s conclusions violated one of the most basic scientific laws of the universe, the conservation of information. As Susskind depicts in his book, The Black Hole War was a “genuine scientific controversy” between scientists favoring an emphasis on the principles of relativity against those in favour of quantum mechanics. The debate led to the holographic principle, proposed by Gerard ‘t Hooft and refined by Susskind, which suggested that the information is in fact preserved, stored on the boundary of a system.

Susskind was a plumber who refused to accept what Hawking had discovered and The man who proved Stephen Hawking wrong as his argument was information can never be lost. It might not be easy but his reverse mathematical calculations proved that. Susskind entails a truer more concrete explanation to Black Holes. Susskind’s equations are more elegant   and far more fascinating to Hawking’ equations.

Stephen Hawking ground his jaws and his teeth for 6 long years to have a ruthless swing at Susskind by coming up with the multiverse theory that if a black hole exists in our universe the same Black Hole may not exist in  another parallel multiverse (multiple universe). It proved not only Hawking knows what he is doing but will have the last word and his word is LAW.

Carlo Rovelli is an Italian theoretical physicist and writer who has worked in Italy, the United States and, since 2000, in France. He works mainly in the field of quantum gravity and is a founder of loop quantum gravity theory. He has also worked in the history and philosophy of science. Born: 3 May 1956
Carlo Rovelli is an Italian theoretical physicist and writer who has worked in Italy, the United States and, since 2000, in France. He works mainly in the field of quantum gravity and is a founder of loop quantum gravity theory. He has also worked in the history and philosophy of science. Born: 3 May 1956

The other theory fighting to come out is rather closer to the movie Interstellar as this one explains that on the other side of every black hole there is a massive white hole the leading approaches to merging quantum theory and gravity, pioneered by, among others, theoretical physicist Carlo Rovelli of Aix-Marseille University in France, posits that it is not just gravity but space-time itself that is quantized, woven from tiny, individual loops that cannot be subdivided any further. The loops in this ‘loop quantum gravity’ — a theoretical attempt that has yet to find experimental support — would be so tiny that to any observer space-time looks smooth and continuous. In the new work, Rovelli and his Aix-Marseille colleague Hal Haggard have calculated that the loop structure would halt the collapse of a black hole. The collapsing star would reach a stage at which its inside can shrink no further, because the loops cannot be compressed into anything smaller, and in fact they would exert an outward pressure that theorists call a quantum bounce, transforming a black hole into a white hole. Rather than being shrouded by a true, eternal event horizon, the event would be concealed by a temporary ‘apparent horizon’, says Rovelli.

Abhas Mitra, an astrophysicist from India has joined the battle to come out with imperical, irrefutable, undeniable new evidence of what the Black hole might be. Mitra’s findings claim that his theory on black holes has been confirmed by NASA.

According to Physicist Mitra, the so-called black holes are not “true” black holes but actually ultra hot balls of fire like our Sun, and the recent observations by NASA  scientists of giant flares of X-rays from a black hole confirms it.

Last month, NASA announced that two of its space telescopes caught a huge burst of X-ray spewing out of a super massive black hole.

WHAT IS A BLACK HOLE?
Just incase you want to know what a Black hole is as this articles assumes readers know about Black Holes
What is a Black Hole? (Updated deffinition)

WHAT IS A BLACK HOLE?

WHAT IS A BLACK HOLE?

Stellar black holes form when the center of a very massive star collapses in upon itself.

This collapse also causes a supernova, or an exploding star, that blasts part of the star into space.

Due to the strong gravity produced by black holes, it pulls light towards its centre, meaning it cannot be seen directly.

However, scientists can see the effects of its strong gravity on the stars and gases around it.

If a star is orbiting a certain point in space, scientists can study the star’s motion to find out if it is orbiting a black hole.

When a black hole and a star are orbiting close together, high-energy light is produced.

 As gas forms a disk that spirals into the black hole, it is heated to very high temperatures and releases X-ray light in all directions.

Telescopes can measure the X-ray light. Astronomers use this information to learn more about the properties of a black hole.

In the 1970s, Stephen Hawking proposed that black holes were capable of radiating particles, and that the energy lost through this process would cause the black holes to shrink and eventually disappear.

But last year, Hawking revised his theory by declaring that black holes were in fact ‘grey’

The grey hole theory would allow matter and energy to be held for a period of time before being released back into space.

He says that the idea of an event horizon, from which light cannot escape, is flawed.

He suggests that instead light rays attempting to rush away from the black hole’s core will be held as though stuck on a treadmill and that they can slowly shrink by spewing out radiation.

Hawking told the journal Nature: ‘There is no escape from a black hole in classical theory. [But quantum theory] enables energy and information to escape from a black hole’.

A full explanation of the process, Hawking admits, would require a theory that successfully merges gravity with the other fundamental forces of nature.

Leonard Susskind is an American physicist, who is a professor of theoretical physics at Stanford University, and founding director of the Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics. His research interests include string theory, quantum field theory, quantum statistical mechanics and quantum cosmology. Wikipedia Born: 20 May 1940 (age 80 years), New York, New York, United States Doctoral advisor: Peter A. Carruthers Thesis: Quantum mechanical approach to strong interactions (1965) Notable students: Bharat Ratra, Lisa Dyson, Eduardo Fradkin, Douglas Stanford Education: The City College of New York, Cornell University, Yeshiva University
Leonard Susskind is an American physicist, who is a professor of theoretical physics at Stanford University, and founding director of the Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics. His research interests include string theory, quantum field theory, quantum statistical mechanics and quantum cosmology. Wikipedia Born: 20 May 1940 (age 80 years), New York, New York, United States Doctoral advisor: Peter A. Carruthers Thesis: Quantum mechanical approach to strong interactions (1965) Notable students: Bharat Ratra, Lisa Dyson, Eduardo Fradkin, Douglas Stanford Education: The City College of New York, Cornell University, Yeshiva University

Are black holes HOLOGRAMS? Mysterious dark objects may merely be projections from flat two dimensional surfaces

According to a new study published in the journal Physical Review Letters, Black holes could be Holograms –Projections from flat, two-dimensional surfaces.

New study proposes that black are nothing but just a holographic projection, with a new calculation of the entropy – or also known as disorder. These calculations suggest that these giant enigmas of the Universe being nothing but an optical illusion. Holograph hypothesis was first proposed by physicist Leonard Susskind back in the 1990s, according to this theory, mathematically speaking, the Universe requires just two dimensions – not three – for the laws of physics and gravity to work as they really should.

sounds crazy, but it could essentially resolve some crucial conflicts between Einstein’s theory of relativity and quantum mechanics. Physicists have proposed that the main reason we can’t find out what happens to matter once it passes over the edge – or event horizon – and into a black hole, is because there is actually no ‘inside’. As an alternative, everything that passes the edge gets trapped in the gravitational variations on the surface.

A group of physicists led by Daniele Pranzetti from the Max Planck Institute for Theoretical Physics in Germany has now presented a new approximation for the amount of entropy existing in a black hole, and their calculations support this situation.

Dr. Daniele Pranzetti

Born in Treia in 1982, grew up in Macerata, Italy Dr. Daniele Pranzetti now reveals the fascinating world of ``Quantum Gravity``, research lead at the 'Max Planck Institute' in Berlin he is ``incredibly young, cosmopolitan, transgressive and great fan of electronic music ``.

The physicists were concentrating on the entropy – a physical property that encrypts how ordered, or disordered, something really is. According to Stephen Hawking, the entropy of a black hole must be relative to its area, but not its volume, and this notion is what encouraged the first thoughts about the probability of holographic black holes.

Joanne Kennel explains for The Science Explorer, said “Although there is some consensus in the scientific community that black holes must have entropy or their existence would violate the second law of thermodynamics, no agreement has been reached about the origin of this entropy, or how to calculate its value,”

For a new way of looking at this this problem, Pranzetti and his coworkers used a theoretical method called Loop Quantum Gravity (LQG) to clarify a concept known as quantum gravity.

Black Hole is Hollographic Illusion only

The work by Dr Daniele Pranzetti and his colleagues suggests that black holes conform to something known as the Holography Principal, which states that the universe itself may be a holographic projection (illustrated)

Dr Pranzetti said: ‘The idea at the basis of our study is that homogenous classical geometries emerge from a condensate of quanta of space introduced in a Loop Quantum Gravity in order to describe quantum geometries.’

Their findings were found to support the holographic hypothesis, Dr Pranzetti added.

This could mean that all the information needed to understand the structure of black holes is actually contained on a two dimensional surface – physicists just need to know how to translate it.

In theoretical physics, quantum gravity pursues to explain the force of gravity according to the rules of quantum mechanics, and forecasts that the fabric of space-time consists of tiny grains known as quanta – the ‘atoms’ of space-time.

Assemblages of these quanta are called condensates, and the physicists discovered that just like a jug full of atoms that make up water molecules, a black hole made of condensates would have all the similar properties, and their mutual behavior and gravitational effects could be resolute by studying the properties of just one.

What this means is that although we can’t really see or measure what’s inside a black hole’s event horizon – and hence its entropy – it doesn’t actually matter, if the collective properties of all its ‘atoms’ can be measured in just one.

The team explains in a press release “[J]ust as fluids at our scale appear as continuous materials despite their consisting of a huge number of atoms, similarly, in quantum gravity, the fundamental constituent atoms of space form a sort of fluid, that is continuous space-time. A continuous and homogenous geometry (like that of a spherically symmetric black hole) can … be described as a condensate.”

Now, think of a black hole as a three-dimensional basketball ring – consider the ring as the event horizon, and the net is the hole into which all matter foes and vanishes. Shove that net up into the ring to create it a flat, two-dimensional circle, and then visualize that all that metal and string is made of water. Now everything you measure in the ring can be applied to what’s in the net.

With this in mind, now have a real model to show that the 3D nature of black holes might just be an illusion – all the information of a black hole can hypothetically be confined on a two-dimensional surface, with no need for an real ‘hole’ or inside.

Pranzetti and his group’s model has been explained in Physical Review Letters, and while it’s going to be quite difficult to prove ultimately that black holes are in fact two-dimensional, theoretical physicists are definitly going to try anyway. This research might just be the next crucial stage to get them further on their way, and that’s pretty cool.

All of this means that everything needed to understand the composition of Black Holes is found within a two-dimensional surface. The only thing scientists need to do now is understand how to translate it.

The proposed findings by Dr. Pranzetti and his team publihed their findong in the journal Physical Review Letters, could allow scientists to gain new insights into the gravitational states that exist within a black hole.

Dr Daniele Pranzetti, a physicist at the Max Planck Institute for Theoretical Physics in Munich, Germany, said: ‘We were able to use a more complete and richer model compared with what done in the past, and obtain a far more realistic and robust result.

‘This allowed us to resolve several ambiguities afflicting previous calculations.’

To conduct their calculations, the researchers used a phenomenon known as quantum gravity to examine the entropy, or disorder, that exist in black holes.

Previous work by scientists such as Professor Stephen Hawking have suggested the entropy of a black hole is proportional to its area but not its volume.

Quantum gravity assumes the fabric of space-time is made up of grains known as quanta and explores the effects of gravity at these tiny scales.

The researchers were able to construct calculations that looked at the gravitational impacts that collections of these quanta, known as condensates, together would have.

It could provide a way of modelling what may lie at the heart of black holes according to the behaviour of the gravity they produce.

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