The other theory fighting to come out is rather closer to the movie Interstellar as this one explains that on the other side of every black hole there is a massive white hole the leading approaches to merging quantum theory and gravity, pioneered by, among others, theoretical physicist Carlo Rovelli of Aix-Marseille University in France, posits that it is not just gravity but space-time itself that is quantized, woven from tiny, individual loops that cannot be subdivided any further. The loops in this ‘loop quantum gravity’ — a theoretical attempt that has yet to find experimental support — would be so tiny that to any observer space-time looks smooth and continuous. In the new work, Rovelli and his Aix-Marseille colleague Hal Haggard have calculated that the loop structure would halt the collapse of a black hole. The collapsing star would reach a stage at which its inside can shrink no further, because the loops cannot be compressed into anything smaller, and in fact they would exert an outward pressure that theorists call a quantum bounce, transforming a black hole into a white hole. Rather than being shrouded by a true, eternal event horizon, the event would be concealed by a temporary ‘apparent horizon’, says Rovelli.
Abhas Mitra, an astrophysicist from India has joined the battle to come out with imperical, irrefutable, undeniable new evidence of what the Black hole might be. Mitra’s findings claim that his theory on black holes has been confirmed by NASA.
According to Physicist Mitra, the so-called black holes are not “true” black holes but actually ultra hot balls of fire like our Sun, and the recent observations by NASA scientists of giant flares of X-rays from a black hole confirms it.
Last month, NASA announced that two of its space telescopes caught a huge burst of X-ray spewing out of a super massive black hole.
Are black holes HOLOGRAMS? Mysterious dark objects may merely be projections from flat two dimensional surfaces
According to a new study published in the journal Physical Review Letters, Black holes could be Holograms –Projections from flat, two-dimensional surfaces.
New study proposes that black are nothing but just a holographic projection, with a new calculation of the entropy – or also known as disorder. These calculations suggest that these giant enigmas of the Universe being nothing but an optical illusion. Holograph hypothesis was first proposed by physicist Leonard Susskind back in the 1990s, according to this theory, mathematically speaking, the Universe requires just two dimensions – not three – for the laws of physics and gravity to work as they really should.
sounds crazy, but it could essentially resolve some crucial conflicts between Einstein’s theory of relativity and quantum mechanics. Physicists have proposed that the main reason we can’t find out what happens to matter once it passes over the edge – or event horizon – and into a black hole, is because there is actually no ‘inside’. As an alternative, everything that passes the edge gets trapped in the gravitational variations on the surface.
A group of physicists led by Daniele Pranzetti from the Max Planck Institute for Theoretical Physics in Germany has now presented a new approximation for the amount of entropy existing in a black hole, and their calculations support this situation.
The physicists were concentrating on the entropy – a physical property that encrypts how ordered, or disordered, something really is. According to Stephen Hawking, the entropy of a black hole must be relative to its area, but not its volume, and this notion is what encouraged the first thoughts about the probability of holographic black holes.
Joanne Kennel explains for The Science Explorer, said “Although there is some consensus in the scientific community that black holes must have entropy or their existence would violate the second law of thermodynamics, no agreement has been reached about the origin of this entropy, or how to calculate its value,”
For a new way of looking at this this problem, Pranzetti and his coworkers used a theoretical method called Loop Quantum Gravity (LQG) to clarify a concept known as quantum gravity.
In theoretical physics, quantum gravity pursues to explain the force of gravity according to the rules of quantum mechanics, and forecasts that the fabric of space-time consists of tiny grains known as quanta – the ‘atoms’ of space-time.
Assemblages of these quanta are called condensates, and the physicists discovered that just like a jug full of atoms that make up water molecules, a black hole made of condensates would have all the similar properties, and their mutual behavior and gravitational effects could be resolute by studying the properties of just one.
What this means is that although we can’t really see or measure what’s inside a black hole’s event horizon – and hence its entropy – it doesn’t actually matter, if the collective properties of all its ‘atoms’ can be measured in just one.
The team explains in a press release “[J]ust as fluids at our scale appear as continuous materials despite their consisting of a huge number of atoms, similarly, in quantum gravity, the fundamental constituent atoms of space form a sort of fluid, that is continuous space-time. A continuous and homogenous geometry (like that of a spherically symmetric black hole) can … be described as a condensate.”
Now, think of a black hole as a three-dimensional basketball ring – consider the ring as the event horizon, and the net is the hole into which all matter foes and vanishes. Shove that net up into the ring to create it a flat, two-dimensional circle, and then visualize that all that metal and string is made of water. Now everything you measure in the ring can be applied to what’s in the net.
With this in mind, now have a real model to show that the 3D nature of black holes might just be an illusion – all the information of a black hole can hypothetically be confined on a two-dimensional surface, with no need for an real ‘hole’ or inside.
Pranzetti and his group’s model has been explained in Physical Review Letters, and while it’s going to be quite difficult to prove ultimately that black holes are in fact two-dimensional, theoretical physicists are definitly going to try anyway. This research might just be the next crucial stage to get them further on their way, and that’s pretty cool.
All of this means that everything needed to understand the composition of Black Holes is found within a two-dimensional surface. The only thing scientists need to do now is understand how to translate it.
The proposed findings by Dr. Pranzetti and his team publihed their findong in the journal Physical Review Letters, could allow scientists to gain new insights into the gravitational states that exist within a black hole.
Dr Daniele Pranzetti, a physicist at the Max Planck Institute for Theoretical Physics in Munich, Germany, said: ‘We were able to use a more complete and richer model compared with what done in the past, and obtain a far more realistic and robust result.
‘This allowed us to resolve several ambiguities afflicting previous calculations.’
To conduct their calculations, the researchers used a phenomenon known as quantum gravity to examine the entropy, or disorder, that exist in black holes.
Previous work by scientists such as Professor Stephen Hawking have suggested the entropy of a black hole is proportional to its area but not its volume.
Quantum gravity assumes the fabric of space-time is made up of grains known as quanta and explores the effects of gravity at these tiny scales.
The researchers were able to construct calculations that looked at the gravitational impacts that collections of these quanta, known as condensates, together would have.
It could provide a way of modelling what may lie at the heart of black holes according to the behaviour of the gravity they produce.